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The Triangle Space – Page 2 – Stay Informed

Remembering the Martyrs of APS

Ghalib Parvaiz

Ghalib Parvaiz

The Writer Teaches World History and Pakistan Studies

at APS&C System Hyderabad Cantt.

Remembering the Martyrs of APS

Remembering the Martyrs of APS

“Smallest coffins are the heaviest to carry”. There is nothing more saddening in this world than a child’s demise from the cause of terrorism. Every year Pakistan observes 16th December as a black day because we have lost our little angels in Army Public School, Peshawar. The massacre of APS Peshawar was an attempt to destabilize Pakistan. Militants have crossed the red line by storming educational institutions and attacking our innocent students. The attack has been remembered in the annals of Pakistan’s history because the nation will continue to pay homage to those who have been killed at the hands of terrorists. According to Nelson Mandela, education is the most powerful weapon which we can use to change this world. This quote is equally important and relevant in contemporary times. For instance, having a look at western and eastern countries, including China and Japan they have prioritized their education. Thus, continue to dominate the world in every walk of life. But the question is what hampers developing countries like Pakistan to become the most educated country in the world?

Countries that continuously face the threat of terrorism can never be on the path of progress because terrorism devours human intelligentsia, development and restricts a country from achieving sustainable developmental goals. Pakistan has witnessed the most dangerous terrorism wave soon after the 9/11 incident – perhaps the only attacks in the twenty-first century that have changed global politics. We have decided to join hands with the United States against the war on terror and managed to dismantle the terrorist infrastructure in Pakistan. Our Armed forces rendered great sacrifices and secured Pakistan from prevailing terrorist activities. However, we as a nation failed the day when some militants entered APS Peshawar and bloodshed students who have been martyred in school. On December 16th, our students went to school and never came back. The tragedy has shaken our state’s foundations and triggered chaos and anarchy.

There is no denying the fact that our students are the future of Pakistan. Our nation’s success lies in securing our students from illiteracy and terrorism. Unfortunately, 20 million students are still deprived of education which is the basic right of every child living in Pakistan. According to Article 25- A of the constitution of Pakistan, children from five to sixteen years old are entitled to acquire free education in government schools, yet students have no access to education especially in remote areas of Pakistan. Streamlining such students should be the topmost priority of the Pakistan government.

Pakistan has long been cited as providing safe havens to terrorists, but the APS Peshawar attack exposed the so-called distorted narrative of Pakistan’s enemy country India. Soon after the brutal attack on APS, our policymakers, including Civil-Military struggled hard to prevent terrorist activities and managed to formulate National Action Plan. According to NAP, the state has successfully waged war against growing extremism and militancy. The relentless efforts yielded positive results as Pakistan reports fewer terror-related activities as compared to the past five years.

It’s been seven years, but the tragedy of December 16th, 2014 still brings tears into the eyes of millions of Pakistani. This is a testament to the fact that we have not forgotten the martyrs of APS. Terrorists failed to shake the spirit and dedication of our students and have been dispatched to hell by our paramilitary forces. The martyrs of APS Peshawar have left the legacy that neither they have been deterred by the attacks, nor will they give up education. To sum up, students’ passion for their studies will make Pakistan a progressive country.



Shoukat Ali Lohar


 Soukat Ali Lohar

Assistant professor in English at Mehran University of engineering and technology Jamshoro. 


The present study is entitled “Language, Culture & Identity”.This study aims to explore how Language, Culture & Identity are interconnected to each other and their impact on individuals or society. Knowing the relationships of language, culture, and identity is very essential especially for teachers who teach a second language to students who belong to different backgrounds or cultures, etc. Language is shaped by culture, while culture is impacted by language, and both (culture and language) form the identity. A man’s identity can disclose by his age, profession, socio-economic class, culture, and nationality. Identity can be acquired through one’s culture, native and foreign languages, education also as people identify others by the culture and language they are dominant in, the way they do things, and the way they vary their way of speaking depending on who they are talking with. People identify others by culture and the language they are dominant in, the way they do things, and the way they vary their way of speaking depending on who they are talking with. Language plays an essential role in a person’s individuality since it is certainly a way of communicating one’s identity.

The present study begins with the introduction that elucidates the three concepts: language, culture, and identity separately. Then the literature review will be given to have a thorough understanding of the issues related to the topic of the study. And finally, it will be concluded precisely. 



Relationships among language, culture, and identity have become a favorite topic in social science for decades. In his book Primitive Culture, Edward Tylor (1871) defines the culture that “as a complex whole which includes knowledge, morals, beliefs, art, law technology and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of the society. Many people identify others by the culture and the language they are dominant in, the way they do things, and the way they vary their way of speaking depending on who they are talking with. The belief of belonging to a certain group has its origins in the language that someone speaks. Language plays an essential role in a person’s individuality since it is certainly a way of communicating one’s identity. Communication helps us to reach out to people and to unite with others that are not of the same background. Therefore, language allows for exploration to occur and opens up a new window in our life. Three main aspects of the present study are further explained below:


Speaking a second language enables individuals to discover diverse cultures, different ideas or to simply explore a whole new different world from the one familiar to. Bilingual individuals have more opportunities of making foreign friends and be able to be understood more by others of different places. Language is introduced by Crystal (1971, 1992) as “the systematic, conventional use of sounds, signs or written symbols in a human society for communication and self-expression”. As it is discussed above that language is not only a means of communication but also self-identification. In globalization communication, learning other languages as a second language positively promotes intercultural understanding across languages and cultures.


Concerning the definition of culture, Edward Sapir (1956) says that culture is a system of behaviors and modes that depend on unconsciousness. Undoubtedly the culture is learned through relationships with other people. Everyone belongs to a distinct group. He/She reflects his/her special thought and culture. It is easy to analyze different groups and distinguish them from one another. For instance, the language of a child is different from the language of an adult or the people in the East speak differently from the people in the West or the language of the poor is different from the language of the rich, even their clothes are different. Therefore, culture is not natural, inborn, and willless; it is a social product. Some factors are considerable and momentous in this transmission such as information and knowledge in a society, social changes, social relations, and mass media. Similarly, from the anthropological and ethnological senses, culture encompasses the total range of activities and ideas of a specific group of people with common and shared traditions, which are conveyed, distributed, and highlighted by members of the group (Collins English Dictionary 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003). There are about two or three hundred and even more definitions for culture. 


One’s identity was understood as whom you were, and who you are or how you are seen by others may involve differing identities. Current research on language, culture, and identity is concerned with how individuals use language to co-construct their everyday worlds and, in particular, their social roles and identities and those of others. The studies assume that identity is multiple and varied, individual representations of which embody particular social histories that are built up through and continually recreated in one’s everyday experiences (Bucholtz and Hall, 2005). Moreover, it is acknowledged that individuals belong to varied groups and so take on a variety of identities defined by their memberships in these groups. These identities, however, are not fixed but rather are ‘multifaceted in complex and contradictory ways; tied to social practice and interaction as flexible and contextually contingent resources; and tied to processes of differentiation from other identified groups’ (Miller, 2000).


Literature review

As far as language is concerned, it is a vital instrument to convey cultural values and who we are as well as the characteristics of the group we belong to. In other words, ‘Language is one of the media through which thoughts, ideas, and feelings are represented in a culture’ which means culture could not exist without language. Generally speaking, language is introduced by Crystal (1971, 1992) as “the systematic, conventional use of sounds, signs or written symbols in a human society for communication and self-expression”. Emmitt and Pollock (1997) believe that language is a system of arbitrary signs which is accepted by a group and society of users. It is taken delivery of a specific purpose in relation to the communal world of clients.

However,(Greimas, 1970) argues that a human being is a social creature. Man is a receiver and sender of messages who assembles and distributes information. Likewise, Sapir (1956) claims that “every cultural pattern and every single act of social behavior involves communication in either an explicit or implicit sense”.The tool for this communication is language. Saussure (1974) believes that language is a system of signs. For him, a sign consists of a signifier (the sound- image or the written shape) and a signified (a concept), in the manner that, they both are inseparably linked with each other. He more compares language and thought to a sheet of paper; He considers that thought is the front part of the paper and sounds the back part. It is impossible to cut any of the two parts without cutting the other. Saussure (1956, 1972, 1974, 1983) describes language as the system of differences. In this opinion, he believes in the difference of meaning of a sound image or written shape in different languages. “If words stood for pre-existing concepts, they would all have exact equivalents in meaning from one language to the next; but this is not true” (Saussure, 1974, p. 116). That is to say, the concept of a sound image or symbol in different languages is different. In the same way, Chase (1969) states that the purpose of language use is to communicate with others to think, and to shape one’s standpoint and outlook on life. Certainly, language figures human thoughts.

Every civilization has its language and culture either simple or complex. Kroeber and Kluckhohn (1952), consider civilization and culture the same and they believe the two terms have been used synonymously. For them, they both indicate different levels of the same subject. Civilization indicates the great development of a civilized society; culture indicates the same subject too. If culture is taken seriously, it appears that people need not only enough food but also well-cooked food. Culture is learned through relationships with other people. Everyone belongs to a distinct group. He/She reflects his/her special thought and culture. It is easy to analyze different groups and distinguish them from one another. Mesbahe Yazdi, (2005) believes that the factor which differentiates the human being’s behavior from the behavior of the animal is culture In general, from the sociological perspective, culture is the total of the inherited and innate ideas, attitudes, beliefs, values, and knowledge, comprising or forming the shared foundations of social action. Levis Strauss (1976) believes, in a language expresses universal realities in symbols. On the whole, the elements of culture are the entirety of socially transmitted and common behavior patterns, prototypes, samples, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. Rocher (1972, 2004), an anthropologist, believes that “Culture is a connection of ideas and feelings accepted by the majority of people in a society”. Undeniably, culture is learned and shared within social groups and is conveyed by non-genetic ways (The American Heritage, Science Dictionary 2005). Taylor (1974), an anthropologist, states in his Primitive Culture that culture in a complex definition includes beliefs, arts, skills, moralities, laws, traditions, and behaviors that an individual, as a member of society, gets from his society. T. S. Eliot (1961) considers culture as capital and means for developing all cultures and knowledge to terminate all human sharing problems, for helping economic stabilization and political security. Similarly, Goodenough (1996) argues that culture is a systematic association of people that have a certain way of life. Therefore, culture is the only distinction between humans and animals. Of course, animals live in association but it is a special kind. There is, indeed, a lot of shared characteristics between human beings and animals such as associative life, responsibility toward children, and so on. But culture is for men, only. Spencer (1986) calls culture the milieu of superorganic and highlights the separation of culture from physical and natural factors. He believes that the superorganic factor is only for man, whereas; the other two factors are the same for man and animal.

While as for as identity is concerned, we have already discussed that language is not only a means of communication but also self-identification one’s identity was understood as whom you were, and who you are or how you are seen by others may involve differing identities… A person’s culture is an essential element of their identity. It contributes to their self-image and influences their group identity i.e. the groups to which they feel they inherently belong (Bakhtin, 1981). According to Zimmerman (1998), identity can be discovered through particular discourse and presented by speakers, hearers and it is also can be exposed through the specific situation. According to Rembo (2004), “A person’s social identity comes from an individual’s knowledge of himself as an individual in relationship to others.” It can be stated that we construct our identity by how we perceive ourselves in the eyes of others. . Cultural identity is an important contributor to people’s wellbeing. People in different cultures hold different ways to view the world.

Similarly, Ortner, (1989) believes that culture and identity lead to concerns with articulating ‘the relationship between the structures of society and culture on the one hand and the nature of human activity on the other’.Language and identity are inseparably associated with each other. While language is the medium used by individuals to negotiate a sense of self in different contexts (Pierce, 1995; Norton, 2000), identity construction is a social and cultural process that is accomplished through discursive practices. Therefore, the ability to use a specificlanguage in a specific context influences the development of culturalidentity (Trechter & Bucholtz, 2001) by creating a tension between thediscourse of the dominant culture and the discourse of the subcultureof second language speakers. In other words, how language, in this case, English, is used determines to which social group individuals are allowed entrance. Those who speak English will be admitted to social groups with greater amounts of social and political power than those who do not (Fairclough, 2001). As Cummins (1996) notes, the unequal relation of power between dominant and minority languages can serve to constrain multiple identities that minority language speakers can negotiate at school and in society. Watson-Gegeo and Gegeo (1999) elucidate that language is central to cultural ways of thinking. They argue that “language is essential to identity, authenticity, cultural survival and people’s learning and thinking processes”. This concept is manifested when English language learners in most American schools must recreate knowledge through a second language, thereby losing their cultural identity and their authentication of self. When the link between language, cultural identity, and ways of thinking limit access to knowledge, second-language learners’ opportunities for literacy development are diminished. . A man’s identity can disclose his nationality, culture, age, profession, and socio-economic class. Language is considered to be a tool for humans’ communications, the growth, and development of their talents, causing creativity, innovation, and novelty, exchanging and transferring their experiences, and on the whole, for the formation of society(s)… One of the many ways in which identity can be acquired is through one’s native and foreign languages, culture, education, and way of life. Many people identify others by the language they are dominant in, the way they do things, and the way they vary their way of speaking depending on who they are talking with. The belief of belonging to a certain group has its origins in the language that someone speaks. Language plays an essential role in a person’s individuality since it is certainly a way of communicating one’s identity. 



The present study explores how Language, Culture & Identity are interconnected to each other and their impact on individuals or society. The introduction covers all three aspects: language culture and identity in detail. Then the literature review is given thoroughly and in the light of the literature review, we conclude that it is very essential for ESL teachers to know the relationships of language, culture, and identity. It is obvious that language and culture shape one’s identity and personality. Language is not only a means of communication but also self-identification. Learning other languages as a foreign or second language positively promotes intercultural understanding across languages and cultures. Language and culture are interconnected and dependent on each other and certainly play a vital role to describe one’s identity.



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Bucholtz, M. & Trechter, S. (Eds). (2001). White Noise: Bringing Language into Whiteness Studies. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 11, (1): 1-21.

Bucholtz, M. & Hall, K. (2004). Language and Identity. In Duranti (Ed). A Companion to Linguistic Anthropology. Blackwell Companions to Anthropology. UCLA, CA.

Chase, S. (1969), “How language shapes our thoughts”. In Language: An Introduction Reader. (J. Burl H., and Roberts, E. Y., eds.), p. 97-108. New York: Harper and Row, Publishers. 

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Goodenough, W.H. (1996). Culture. In Levinson 8 Ember (Eds.) Encyclopedia of cultural anthropology vol. 1. New York: Henry Holt and co. 

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Inge Urbancic: An American lady who works on the Education of Sindh By Jokhio Jasarat Ilyas

An American lady who works on the Education of Sindh By Jokhio Jasarat Ilyas

Inge Urbancic: An American lady who works on the Education of Sindh

By: Jokhio Jasarat Ilyas


The land of Sindh is so charismatic and attractive that whoever comes here, becomes its lover forever. An American lady named Professor Inge Urbancic is also one of those scholars from foreign, and experts who have been included in the list of philosophers who have worked for Sindh, Pakistan.


Inge was born in the “Charm City ” of Crabs and harbor Baltimore of Maryland, an American state. She got her primary education from Notre Dame Preparatory School and moved further for education to Loyola University Maryland for BBA International Business and Philosophy (Double Major) through study tours to Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium, and Thailand from 1989 to 1994. She graduated in 1994. From 1997 to 1999 A.D, she completed her Master of Arts MA in TESOL from Notre Dame of Maryland University. In the meantime, she started teaching in the various universities and institutions of the USA and abroad like Northern Community College London VA, Fairfax County Public Schools, Virginia Tech Language and Culture Institute and Berlitz International, etc. She is not only an expert in her subject but also an experienced teacher, researcher, mentor, and philosopher. She has been a founder of various institutions like Avenia Solutions, EnglishWorks, Sea to Sea Travel and Integrated Management Solution, etc, while as recently, she has founded PATEN (a non-government professional institute of Pakistani American Teachers of English Language where she has been teaching and training various English teachers of Pakistan. She is currently working as a Ph.D. scholar at George Mason University Fairfax, VA USA.


She has been a Manager in the 140 years old American Institute BERLITZ INTERNATIONAL and is a famous teacher of various students from the global community. During studying various cultures, she fell in love with the land and culture of Sindh, which compelled her to visit Sindh, Pakistan and she visited Sindh from 26 March to 11 April 2021. Her dream of visiting Sindh and getting loved comes true when her student Saima Iqbal presents her with the most beautiful traditional gift of Sindh-Ajrak. She got immense pleasure.


The dreams of Prof. Inge Urbancic are to support Sindhi and Pakistani students in getting educated from American institutions on their merit. She visited Karachi-the capital and hub city of Sindh. She felt immense pleasure while meeting the little cutest and intelligent children. As she belongs to the harbor city of Baltimore in the USA, her love for the harbor city of Pakistan (Karachi Sindh) is very great and everlasting. In the future, she wants to work more for Sindhi students who would love to seek their education on a meritorious basis. She wishes to visit the famous University of Sindh at Jamshoro to present her research there as well.

The Divided World

The Divided World Ghalib Parvaiz

   “We can not defeat this pandemic with a divided world,” says WHO Chief Tedros Andhanom Ghebreyesus. The words encapsulate the prevalent Covid-19 crisis. Lack of global solidarity and unanimity poses a graver threat to human beings than a natural calamity. The global plan of action has been standing idle since the outbreak of the coronavirus. When the first covid-19 case was reported in Wuhan city (the epicenter of a pandemic) world leaders did not even issue a single official statement or comment anything on it. On 11 March, World Health Organization declared the coronavirus a pandemic. It was too late, as the deadly virus had widely spread out in various countries and the curve was far from flattening. 

Initially, the coronavirus escalated tensions between two global powers. While referring to the pandemic, former US President Donald Trump called corona-virus “Chinese-virus” more than twenty times in different press conferences. Furthermore, former Secretary of State Michael Pompeo also termed it the “Wuhan virus”. Blaming China over the origins of covid-19 has further aggravated relations between Washington and Beijing. However, the racist words used by the US were also condemned by the World Health Organization. Use of language that could stigmatize certain ethnic groups over the coronavirus would have severe repercussions in the already divided world. 

Amid Pandemic, US President suspended WHO funding. This sinister move wreaks havoc on the world’s health. The US is the biggest contributor to WHO’s budget in the world. According to the WHO, the United States provided 14.67 percent of its funding in 2018-2019. Moreover, Washington vehemently criticized UN Health Agency and termed it China’s puppet which has failed the world in containing the virus. President Trump demanded an independent investigation against WHO leadership. Such aggressive moves may further widen the gap between World Health Organization and its major fundraisers.

    While looking at the current situation, the coronavirus has claimed 5.22million lives and infected nearly more than nine million worldwide. Unfortunately, the pandemic is still accelerating and global leadership is politicizing the pandemic. Despite emerging health crises, the pandemic has posed the greatest threat to the world economy, triggered the social crisis, and caused political instability in many countries. According to the World Bank Report, the baseline forecast envisions a 5.2 percent contraction in global GDP in 2020. It shows that the world has entered a recession. Additionally, recent publications of “South Asia Economic Focus” paints a dismal picture for developing nations where Covid1-9 has already pushed sixty million people into poverty in its very first phase.

 Recently, a wave of protests has emerged in the West, after the unfortunate killing of Black American George Floyd. The incident unleashed public anger and caused a social crisis in the developed world. Even in Pakistan, civil society moved forward and condemned the racist act that took place in Minneapolis, a city in the United States. There is no denying the fact that pandemic has accelerated hate crimes and xenophobia globally. If mass protests can erupt in democratic countries like US and UK, it means that not a single nation is immune to the protests. However, developing countries are more vulnerable to such uprisings.

 Pakistan is one of the youngest countries in the world as 64 percent of the total population is below the age of 30. A study conducted by “Population International Action” shows that about 80% of the world’s civil conflicts since the 1970s have occurred in countries with a young and fast-growing population. Thus, utilizing youth productively is an emerging challenge for incumbent government amid pandemics. The failure of successive governments pushing insecure youth towards extremism. Moreover, an abrupt rise in unemployment, increasing poverty, deteriorating health, and a very low mortality rate have made people socially insecure. The social crisis is an existential threat to the integration of the nations which must be addressed by the state governments without any delay.


 At present, the world is battling against covid-19. This is a global phenomenon that is not confined to one nation. Humanity has fallen victim to the lethal disease as it has affected the people beyond borders. Defeating pandemics requires global efforts because they can not be defeated in isolation. Setting aside all the differences, a decades-long enmity, and bashing attitude, world leaders need to adopt a flexible approach and design a more globalized world where essential medical services would be provided to the countries indiscriminately. Closing the doors for research development for vaccines is an unwise decision. As the United States enforced travel restrictions on the Chinese in the initial phase of covid-19. The decision irked the Chinese government.

In a nutshell, there exist a few chances to defeat the pandemic very soon in a divided world. Covid-19 has turned the world upside down. The financial loss and adverse impacts on every sphere of life. Such as wiping out millions of jobs, disrupting the electoral process in forty-seven countries and emerging political instability pave the way for an alarming situation. Saving lives takes precedence over anything else. As human beings enter in dangerous phase. Desperate times always call for desperate measures. There is a dire need to respond effectively to conquer the pandemic which can only be possible with global solidarity and unity. The people in a divided world is looking for concerted efforts through which pandemic can be defeated before it causes more loss to human lives.


Ghalib Parvaiz


The writer is a Postgraduate in World History,

from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.



Dr. Saima Naz –The Young Post-Doctoral Scientist of Sindh Pakistan! By: JASARAT ILYAS JOKHIO

Dr. Saima Naz –The Young Post-Doctoral Scientist of Sindh Pakistan! By: JASARAT ILYAS JOKHIO

Dr. Saima Naz –The Young Post-Doctoral Scientist of Sindh Pakistan!


If you want to see an emerging scientist and one of the current topmost Postdoctoral researchers in the European Union then come to see such a wonderful scientist in the University of Sindh, Jamshoro where Dr. Saima Naz can be seen in the department of Zoology, imparting education, knowledge, wisdom and teaching the students from BS level to Ph.D. with modern research methods and micro-techniques. Dr. Saima Naz, who is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Zoology at Sindh University has recently just returned to Pakistan after completing the two years full-time residential Post-Doctorate Degree Project from a highly reputed university of Europe; Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic, working on the alpha taxonomical and ecological research and molecular biology research on ectoparasites of birds and mammals… Earlier she got her Ph.D. from the University of Karachi. Before her two years post-doctorate project with a Czech government scholarship, she completed her national project successfully on the game birds of Sindh with an HEC grant from 2015 to 2019.

During her postdoctoral studies, she worked with eminent scientists of the world such as; Tomas, Sedmikova, Cherny, Olda, Costica, Miroslava, and David Modrý, etc. Currently, she is running an international research project under Czech Government Funds with the Faculty of Tropical Agriscience at the Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague. Dr. Saima Naz has also produced very high impact factor 05 research papers in the highly reputed scientific journals during her Post-PhD tenure. That is the reason behind her working affiliations with the various national and international universities.

Decent looking Dr. Saima Naz is a proud daughter of Sindh who got her education from the various educational institutions to pursue primary education like; pre-primary (KG) from a model school at Moosa Lane Kharadar, Class I-II at Govt. Primary School Khohrha Shareef Taluka Gambat district Khairpur, Class III to V at Khushhal Khan Khattak Primary School Steel Town Karachi, Class VI from Wali Mohammad Hassan Ali Govt. School Baghdadi Lyari Karachi, Class VIII to XI at Allama Iqbal Higher Secondary School. In this way, she got her Matriculation in 1992 with an A grade, Intermediate in Science in 1994 with B grade from Pakistan Steel Mills Higher Secondary School Karachi, and then joined the professional field of practical life along with further studies.

Since her childhood, she was noted and implemented the good trends from her sources of inspiration who are a few ideal personalities like; her friend in Matriculation Nazia Bano, her aunt Prof. Razia Sultana Asif (Professor of Sindhi), Zoology teacher in B.Sc. Madam Shehnaz Sultana, research supervisor Prof. Dr. Syed Anser Rizvi, and generally as a great motivator is legend Qasim Ali Shah too whose quotes and inspiring thoughts have touched the heart and soul of millions! She says that her elder brother Dr. Muhammad Asif Khawaja is also been the source of inspiration and motivation for her since her childhood in the family while as a famous social activist and veteran dermatologist of Karachi Dr. Manzoor Hussain Memon is her maternal uncle whom she recognizes as the most influential Sindhi language expert.

Her childhood dream was to become a unique human being like any extraordinary medical doctor to serve humanity etc. Consequently, she completed her Graduation (BSc) in 1996 with 1st division from Madar-e-Millat Pakistan Steel Mills Degree College Malir and then Masters in Zoology in 1999 with 1st division from the Department of Zoology, University of Karachi. At Masters, she discovered that research is the only way to achieve the goal of her life so started collecting different data. This led her to get enrolled in MPhil (in 2004) which was later converted to Ph.D. and she worked days and nights with candid zeal and zest to produce baseline data on the chewing lice of the birds of Karachi. This doctoral degree was achieved by Dr. Saima Naz in 2010 under the supervision of an eminent supervisor Emeritus Professor Dr. Anser Rizvi from the Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Sindh Pakistan.

While speaking about memoirs of her past, she witnessed that there was a ‘potential scientist’ in her soul but had no idea how to explore and spout out the inner scholar and was keenly interested to do some home experiments of cooking and gardening, etc. She also used to read scientific books whether understood or not but collected many books which are still with her in the collection, but who knew that such book reader will one day be an author of three published international standard books (all in 2012 by LAP Publishers Germany) and writer of more than 50 published research papers up to the date.

After completing the education, Dr. Saima started working and got various endeavors in her professional career. She was position holder in the whole Sukkur division in the lecturer test on a contract basis in 2003 while as later in 2005; she got the first position in test and interview throughout Sindh and secured a Lecturer position through Sindh Public Service Commission and joined Government College education department. Before that, she also worked in the private sector as Lecturer in Shaheen Intermediate College Gulistan Johar in 2002-3, as a Science Teacher, and then Lecturer in various private colleges during 1997-2002. She also served as Principal in a newly established Oxford School at Gulshan Iqbal Karachi in 2002-4. In schools and colleges, she was a good teacher but it did not give her research charm so she thought of joining any university. In 2013, she joined Sindh University in the Department of Zoology as Assistant Professor on a merit basis.

When there is a will, there is a way, suits to Dr. Saima Naz whose untiring efforts are part of the modern history of Sindh. Phthirapteran studies were neglected in Sindh Pakistan but she revitalized this field. Research on chewing lice and intestinal parasites of birds, mammals, and fishes are her fields of expertise. She received Pakistan Research Productivity Award (PRA) in 2016 with A category by the Pakistan Council of Science and Technology, Islamabad. Dr. Saima Naz is herself an author of six new species while as various scientists respect her, such as; on the remarkable performance and recognition of her research work on describing new species of Chewing Lice (Phthiraptera) in Pakistan (the only world-known taxonomist of chewing lice in the country), the senior chewing lice-taxonomist Daniel Gustafsson et al., 2018 honored Dr. Saima Naz to put her name on a new species of a chewing louse as Brueelia naze recovered from a small finch bird from Pakistan. (Reference: Gustafsson, D.R., Chu, X., Bush, S.E. and Zou, F., 2018. Ten new species of genus Brueelia Keller, 1936 (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) from nuthatches (Aves: Passeriformes: Sittidae), tits and chickadees (Paridae), and goldcrests (Regulidae); Acta Parasitologica; 63(3): 527-557, DOI: 10.1515/ap-2018-0063).

Dr. Saima Naz is the superb motivated girl of Sindh Pakistan. Notwithstanding the opposition in all steps of life by various resistant factors, she has been achieving many successful icons and has a repute position among the global scientist’s community of Phthirapterology, Parasitology, and Systematic Sciences. Various distinguished awards are in her account. A few of these are; Czech Government Scholarship for Post-Doctoral Research Work, awarded by Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, the Czech Republic during 2019-2021 for Post Ph.D., an award of a travel grant from Higher Education Commission, Islamabad of Rs. 0.309 million to present paper in ICP6, Czech Republic, the golden commemorative badge for the appreciation of significant work on Phthiraptera awarded by The Foundation of University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, the Czech Republic in 2018. She was awarded The Best Poster in the 4th International Conference of Agriculture, Food and Animal Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam in 2019 and on 3rd Position in the Poster Presentation Competition throughout Pakistan at the One-Health International Conference (OHC-2017), the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. Dr. Saima Naz also won 1st and 3rd Positions in Poster Presentation throughout Pakistan, at 1st National Science Conference, Govt. Sadiq College Women University, Bahawalpur in 2017 and in the 36th Pakistan Congress of Zoology (International) at Department of Zoology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro in 2016, respectively.

Additionally, Dr. Saima Naz considers her all students (even Ph.D. scholars) like her children and family members because she has a multidimensional personality who is not only the most positive teacher but also a good mentor, facilitator, researcher, poetess, reader, writer, author, and founder of a unique place in the University of Sindh which is known as “APRL Museum of Parasitology” – the first Museum of its kind in Sindh Pakistan, where a huge variety of precious parasites is preserved to facilitate the scientists and research scholars in the field of Parasitology. Moreover, she will continue the quality production of M.Phil and Ph.D. researchers under her supervision. She has been recommended to continue her work with such quality and social benefits and extend her research with the collaboration with other departments of the faculty like Microbiology and Biotechnology and high up the research in molecular biology and biotechnology techniques, the recommendation was made by the meritorious Professor Dr. M. S. Kalhoro, the worthy Vice-Chancellor, University of Sindh Jamshoro. Earlier when she was moving foreign for a Post Ph.D. Degree, she was head of Parasitology section and also a Laboratory called as Advanced Parasitology Research Laboratory (APRL)-a part of the major discipline of Zoology (Parasitology) where quality research work is being carried out on various aspects of Parasitology. It was established in 2009 with meager facilities but later in 2016 the lab was enhanced and equipped up to possible microscopic to laboratory experimental equipment with the help of Higher Education Commission (HEC) research project No. 4514 under the NRPU program. The project covered the various parasites like helminths, lice, mites, ticks, and flies of migratory and game birds of the province Sindh. APRL contains a museum which is known as APRLMP. Museum of Parasitology (APRLMP) is the first museum of Parasitology in Sindh, Pakistan. The laboratory also contains a huge collection of different parasites including endoparasites and ectoparasites of birds, mammals, and fishes; also the host animals are preserved as stuffed forms. These parasites are preserved and are obtained from the various research studies carried out by the scholars of Parasitology. The micro and macro techniques which are commonly practiced here are; classical and computerized drawing of species, taxonomical study and histopathology investigations, Epidemiology of various diseases.

Up to now, there are a total number of 24 MPhil and 2 Ph.D. scholars who have completed their research from this laboratory. Currently 4 M.Phil and 5 Ph.D. scholars are working on the parasites of birds and mammals at the standard level that can meet the international research requirements. Besides, various achievements of these scholars worked here and secured top positions in the various poster and oral paper presentations competitions held in the International conferences at the national level (Bahawalpur, Lahore, Faisalabad, Tando Jam, Karachi) and International level in various countries like; the Czech Republic, Turkey, and Romania.

After visiting various countries (such as; Australia, Germany, Greece, Austria, Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Czech Republic, and Saudi Arabia, etc) for the purpose of research, knowledge, and achievement of recreation, she has created various professional contacts and working affiliations with the international centers of excellence in Parasitology, laboratories, and museums of Parasitology which will liaise the creative skills of the scholars of either country. Dr. Saima Naz shall very soon start Molecular Research using different models on the parasitological aspects. APRL laboratory is open for every research scholar from the department as well as outside the department who is interested to work on various parasites all around the region.



Wishing for wanting good was a sin. Fiza Memon

Fiza Memon
Wishing for wanting good was a sin. Fiza Memon

Wishing for wanting good was a sin.

Years of yearning to have finally my prayers answered into the worst of the worst, what irony could it be? Why was it even relevant? Years today, down this lane, I am as clueless as I was.

There will be a periodic defeat in life that will leave you in a lurch wandering to think of the reason you wish you had.

Years have passed, more faith and strength might have formed substance, and given much patience, it hasn’t healed. Time has but healed only that which was fresh. Scars are a gift of a lifetime. They will stay, they will be the lessons you never thought why they mattered.

Wisdom will seep through, gravitate enough to make you a pariah in purists.

Patience comes only after a while, it is the gift, but at a cost, another tangibly intangible feel that can’t be taught, given, or inherited for that matter. It is given by the will of the might.

To all this and more, the question today is similar, very much present, the past still so relevant, why so much yearning, deceit, wandering, defeat, wisdom, and patience? All for what? All for more suffering? All for what good? All for trial is the answer. All for tests and tests are hard. And, heroes are never known by their trophies, they’re known by their scars.

I knew then, surrendering was it. It was but no choice, it was but enough of surrendering. A battle of clashing egos that had the souls

 inflated, sordid, and miserable.

If the choice wasn’t given when born, why should there be a choice when lived? The choice is never yours, mine, or anyone’s, it is the trade-off that is defined for the good fated and ill-fated.

International Children’s Day

Sarmad khoso
International Children’s Day

International Children’s Day


Sarmad Khoso


Around the world, every year different international days are celebrated to educate the masses about different issues, problems, values, and personalities.

“International Children’s Day” is also a part of international days which are celebrated every year on different dates by different countries, which are members of “United Nations”.


International Children’s Day is celebrated annually in most countries on 20th November. The objective of this day is to provide quality education, health, food, and security to every child of the world.


First of all, this day was celebrated by Dr. Charles Leonard in 1857 as “Rose Day”, then Turkey was the first Republic that declared this day (Day of Child Security) as a public holiday in the country. In 1950 different countries started to celebrate this day on 1st June. In 1954 United Nations declared 20th November as “International Children’s Day”.


General Assembly of United Nations on 20th November 1959 presented a deceleration about Rights of Child. On the same date of 1989, the same Assembly signed a Convention about the Rights of Children. The key objective of this day is to provide equal opportunities to every child of the world, regardless of class, creed, color, religion, and nation.


After World War II an organization was founded for the security of children’s rights is “Unicef” (United Nations International Children Emergency Fund). Since 1953 Unicef is a permanent member of the United Nations. Nowadays this organization is working for the welfare of Children in 190 different countries of the world.


Every year the theme of this day is different. The theme of this year is “to invest in future means to invest in children.”


The blue color is the symbol of “Rights of Children”. So we all through this color show solidarity with the children of all the world. We can wear a blue dress, cap, etc on this day, or on social media, we can make our profile picture with blue background.


These are some historical facts about the rights of children but when we observe the situation of a child of our society. It is very painful. Because the child of our society is uneducated, hungry, ill, depressed, and deprived.


According to the reports of 2017 of UNICEF, globally every year, 175 million children are out of school. 69% of children are living in disputed societies. 52 million children are passed away from this world before their fifth birthday.


So, for the betterment of children we (especially parents and teachers) have to perform our duties to save our future and to produce good humans in the world.

Philosophical analysts and complexities of language Naveed Sandeelo

Philosophical analysts and complexities of language Naveed Sandeelo

Philosophical analysts and complexities of language

To be sure, this is a fundamental and essential question that must be addressed. Philosophical Analysis, or Language Analysis, is a twentieth-century philosophy that restates philosophical and other concerns by clarifying the language used to convey them. It maintains that the most rational way to resolve problems, particularly those about education, is to inquire about the use of words in certain settings. Language is widely accepted as the spoken and written communication system used by members of a specific group, location, district, or country. It encompasses speech, diction, syntax, and grammar, as well as the terminology employed in a particular academic field, such as education, psychology, law, or medicine. The analysis is the process of dissecting or dividing something into its constituent pieces or elements to determine what it includes and then closely examining the individual components and the structure as a whole. Additionally, it may include an examination of the details of each component and their relationship to one another. Linguistic Analysis is then the philosophical approach for establishing meaning in language, based on the definitions. Philosophical Analysis is a branch of philosophy concerned with examining and clarifying our use of language via the establishment of the meaning of what we say and write. According to analytic philosophers, the primary contribution of philosophers is the examination of the concepts transmitted by language. Due to its emphasis on language, Philosophical Analysis is often referred to as Linguistic Analysis. Additionally, we might state that Philosophical Analysis marks a sea change in the way philosophers conduct their work. It was a watershed moment in the history of thinking and writing about philosophy because it shifted the emphasis away from the metaphysical argument and toward the analysis of philosophical and everyday language. Philosophical analysis is a beneficial tool both in our everyday lives as individuals, citizens, and information consumers, as well as in our professional lives as educators. As educators, we are constantly confronted with old bromides such as “educate the whole child” and “I teach children, not subjects,” as well as new catchphrases such as “effective schools,” “zero tolerance,” “relevant education,” and “engaged learning,” all of which promise to quickly and efficiently solve the nation’s educational problems. Numerous educational promises are made in a language that is both promising and confusing. While they may sound beautiful and lofty, they are frequently a kind of preaching or a political declaration of someone’s good intentions or ideological beliefs. The philosophical analysis enables us to ascertain whether these educational assertions are truly meaningful and capable of guiding us as professional educators. Additionally, analytical philosophers are unconcerned with metaphysics, which they consider as merely speculative and incapable of empirical verification.

      We frequently say or hear the phrases “I understand what you’re saying,” “I hear you,” and “What do you mean?” in our everyday interactions. In typical adolescent jargon, the comparative phrase “it’s like” is frequently used. When we listen to radio or television coverage of a battle, we are likely to hear terms like “friendly fire,” “collateral damage,” and “coalition of the willing.” As teachers, we frequently hear such pleasant-sounding phrases as “excellent education,” “educating the whole kid,” “authentic assessment,” a “successful school,” and “critical thinking,” among others.

     Philosophical Analysis, or Language Analysis, developed in the early twentieth century in response to speculative metaphysical philosophies such as Idealism, Realism, and Thomism. Its origins in the process of simplifying language and thought through the elimination of emotive and subjective qualities also set it apart from Existentialism. Three British philosophers, G. E. Moor (1873-1958), Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), and Gilbert Ryle (1900-1976), led the campaign against Idealism and other speculative metaphysical systems. On the European continent, the Vienna Circle, a group of philosophers who convened in the 1920s and 1930s Vienna, spurred interest in language analysis as a style of philosophical thought. The Circle, claiming that philosophy should be modeled after science, was hostile to earlier, more traditional philosophies based on metaphysics, such as Idealism and Realism. Moritz Schlick (1882–1936) was a leader in Circle. He invented Logical Empiricism, a thorough critical investigation of philosophers’ language to discover their erroneous definitions and abuse of terminology. Along with Schlick, the Circle included Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951). His Tractus Logico-philosophicus (1922) was a seminal work that sparked the development of the field of linguistic analysis known as Logical Positivism.

     Some educational philosophers in the United States, Canada, and Australia were early adopters of Philosophical Analysis, which dominated the discipline during the 1960s and 1970s. They discovered that the analytical approach was particularly effective at demystifying the frequently jargon-filled and unclear language used in the field of education, which extensively borrowed from the social sciences of anthropology, sociology, and psychology. Additionally, they aimed to dismantle the sometimes popular homiletic sermons about “educating the whole child” and “learning by experience” that abound in Education texts.

   Additionally, this approach is predicated on the premise that certain of our linguistic assertions are immediately meaningful due to their internal logic or have the potential to be meaningful if presented in empirically verifiable and testable terms. It is especially remarked in this regard that philosophers feel educators should be knowledgeable about the logical difficulties of language. Because analysts believe that educators may discover a logical structure for language and that this logic can be used to explain unclear ideas and make them relevant in the educational process, some analysts symbolize or quantitatively describe this logical structure. Analytical assertions are tautological in the sense that the terms are true and reversible. It is worth noting that Philosophical Analysis does not attempt to create educational objectives or to prescribe the school’s function. It does strive to develop novel curricula and modalities of instruction. Baruth and Manning note in discussing schools’ role in instilling acceptance and respect for cultural variety: “However, schools must do more than pay lip service – the curriculum must reflect the diversity, and instructional materials must depict culturally different people in positive roles.” It aims to clarify the language used in education through analysis.

    There are various reasons why educators’ terminology is frequently unclear and vague. Educational institutions were frequently founded and supported by religious organizations and faiths. A common type of teaching in churches is the sermon or homily, which exhorts people to adhere to the church’s ideas and teachings. Much homiletic language is composed of parallels, parables, and exhortations concerning values, ethical and moral prescriptions, and prescriptions. Frequently, passionate comments are presented as factual, analytical, or synthetic. Though religious formation is no longer taught in public schools in the United States, the language of exhortation remains an element of education.

    In light of the preceding discussion, and while reaching certain conclusions, we can confidently assert that Philosophical Analysis has always been a beneficial analytical method that has edified both teachers and students during the teaching and learning process. From primary to university level, educational institutions are currently applying this method of instruction to teach qualified students how to think rationally and analyze their difficulties critically and logically. Additionally, it is my personal opinion that the majority of young people in contemporary society go toward philosophical texts to enhance their scientific approach and develop their empirical criticism.

Charity Exposes the Faultline of the Culture Fiza Memon

Student of MBA NUST

Charity Exposes the Faultline of the Culture

A country that thrives on charity is nothing but a cultural Faultline. There are so many forms of charity and all those happen to go on various levels. From a third world surviving on aids granted under structural adjustment programs SAPs to local non-governmental organizations NGOs supporting the poverty-stricken individuals. Despite all the more support, it is seen through statistical data that poverty has but increased manifold. The question arises as to why we think that having more of these programs will bring prosperity when they only make the lazy lazier and poor poorer. In the past, it has taken away the incentive to work hard and these programs come at a cost. First, these programs come through tax-payers tax-imposed incomes– while the third world cries on lofty tax rates– the first world like the United States and France is already contributing approximately 40% of their pay to the exchequer. They hold the right to interrogate their governments on the twin institutions busy providing the tattered world a never-ending list of bailout programs. Although confessed by an economic hitman in the book ‘Confessions of an Economic Hitman’ that these institutions are designed to keep their world a core at the cost of peripheries and semi peripheries. It is to their advantage is why most of the world is bearing their brunt. Second, it is weakening the edifice of developing and least-developed states in terms of institutions and work ethic. Last, although absolute equality has never existed in the most ethical systems, but the sheer inequality is what we see as a result of greed, gluttony, skullduggery, a world of chaos, war, and destruction. Today, most international relations are based on economic interests. Money has become the religion of modern-day capitalism and even the communists realized that this is the only way to aggrandize their imperialist goals. Capitalism is another name for an outmoded Briton’s mercantilism. The goals are the same, however, the approach has to fit recent times. Even these times have called for the crisis.

Coming towards the local approach and individual charity, the local NGOs have taken the charge of governments to provide money, spread vocational skills and expertise to equip marginalized segments to take charge of their lives. With few, it brought more predilection for work and get work; with others, it took away the little enthusiasm they had. Free work and free money became their prerogative in the name of right. Sad state of situation how Pakistan’s government thought no other way but to distribute more money under Ehsaas and Benazir Income Support Program. When shortlisted, many names were cut short of the grant, they complained over their names were no longer entitled to the amount when in reality, grants are but a short-lived support. Another problem that arose later was to explain to the uneducated employed that these grants weren’t a lifetime cushion to lean on but an aid to stand again. Charity, largely around the globe, has only spoilt the aptitude rather than uplifted it. Charity, how humbling is the word, is, in fact, a harsh spit on the world that wishes to maintain the standards of equilibrium and justice.

Sense of Security Aijaz Ali Mangi

Sense of Security Aijaz Ali Mangi

The sense of security comes when the guilty receive the punishment prescribed in the law. The sense of security among the people vanishes, when the state engages with the violent mobs and surrenders. Tehrik Labaik Pakistan(TLP) is on such an example, where the previously proscribed organization was emboldened by giving them big concessions to end their violence. The violence, they incurred upon the property and masses went unaccounted for. History will surely punish us for these actions. When laws of the state are put into silence to address the narrow-vision gains then the future prepares himself to give severe punishment.

After the invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union in December 1979, the artificial fear was created among the Pakistanis that USSR will come to the holy land after the warm waters. Tagging them infidels, holy war was declared to be waged in Afghanistan. Thousands of young men are recruited for Jihad in Afghanistan. They used to be called Mujahedeen. World powers were behind this, billions of dollars were poured into the war. What happened later is the history, well known and well documented.

In this all series, the Braveli sect felt isolated. The sects involved and sponsored in the Afghan Jihad were the Deobandi and their like-minded. The Sufi inclined Bravelis were thought to be peaceful and in harmony with the culture of the land. These were more eager to come in limelight but failed to receive the attention. The disassociated group received some interest when Muttahida Majlis–e–Amal (MMA) a political alliance of right-wing parties was formed in 2002. The alliance was formed to oppose the Musharaf rule and to support the Afghan war in the post 9/11 scenario.   Shah Ahmad Noorani was the founder president of the MMA.

The inception of the TLP and its violent activities and begging the large number of votes provided them a space. The emergence of the TLP is said to be neutralizing Deobandi outfits engaged in the Afghan Jihad, but the project failed. Braves were thought to be a peaceful sect before they demonstrated violence in sit-ins. Their history and linkages with the shrines were taken mistakenly. It was thought that labeling themselves to be Sufis, this sect will neutralize the extremist groups and bring some solace for the state.

This was a big miscalculation, when power is given without check, it is misused and this is the case with TLP. The latest episode of the march towards Islamabad is another round of the Government’s failure to establish the writ of the state. When Governments fail to establish their writ. It brings a sense of insecurity among the masses.

The government is established to act swiftly and decisively when the life and property of the public are endangered by violent mobs, they are not engaged in talks to accept their demands. Proscribed organizations and banned moments are never given opportunities for negotiations, until and unless they go peaceful. The way banned outfits are treated and negotiated is a way of surrendering before the violence. When governments don’t give a befitting response to terrorism, it burgeons, emboldens, and tarnishes the image of the state.

Whether it is TLP or other organizations, they must be treated according to the law of the land. We have well-established institutions and professional law enforcement agencies to tackle the issues. Empowerment given to law brings peace, a sense of security, and stability in the country. We must uphold the rule of the law.